By C.L. BRIANT and R.P. MESSMER (Eds.)
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The wider temperature range is possible, because a uniform concentration profile results in kinetics too rapid for analysis by AES above some limiting temperature, whereas a solutedepleted region under the surface results in slower kinetics, allowing measure ments at higher temperatures. Luckman et al. (1982) analyzed the surface segregation kinetics of a solute for which the initial concentration for one segregation experiment is the nonuniform concentration profile created by interrupting a preceding segre gation experiment before attainment of equilibrium.
18) rather than (19) is consistent with the physical model that Lea and Seah assume for the evaporation process. They take the solute 36 GREGORY L U C K M A N evaporation to be occurring from the matrix just below the surface rather than from the surface layer itself. Equation (18) suggests that the solute evaporates from a matrix layer of thickness d. This thickness could be one, two, or more atomic layers, depending on the thickness of the segregated surface layer. Rowlands and Woodruff (1979) subsequently suggested that a more general model would allow evaporation from the surface layer as well as from the matrix just below the surface.
Second, an element can be deposited on a sample surface in a vacuum environment. The deposited element may be above an equilibrium level at all temperatures, but may not be mobile until the temperature is raised. In either case, maintaining the sample at a higher temperature results eventually in the restoration of a uniform bulk concentra tion. But at short times after the temperature is raised, the desegregated solute is still close to the surface, and the solute concentration is nonuniform.