By Ralf Kiesslich, Peter R. Galle, Markus F. Neurath
During contemporary years, FAF (Fundus autofluorescence) imaging has been proven to be worthy in a number of retinal ailments with reference to diagnostics, documentation of adjustments, identity of affliction development, and tracking of novel remedies. Hereby, FAF imaging provides additional info above and past traditional imaging instruments. This distinct atlas presents a accomplished and up to date review of FAF imaging in retinal illnesses. It additionally compares FAF findings with different imaging innovations corresponding to fundus picture, fluorescein- and ICG angiography in addition to optical coherence tomography. common ophthalmologists in addition to retina experts will locate this a truly worthy consultant which illustrates ordinary FAF features of assorted retinal illnesses.
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Additional resources for Atlas of Endomicroscopy
For endomicroscopic imaging, the confocal imaging window is placed directly onto the area of interest. The highest imaging quality is obtained by achieving full vertical contact of the confocal imaging window with the mucosa through angulation of the tip of the endoscope. Movement artefacts are the main source of reduced confocal image quality, so a stable interface between the tissue and the confocal imaging window is absolutely necessary (⊡ Fig. 5). Intermittent suppression of peristalsis by Nbutyl-scopolamine or glucagon can be helpful in obtaining stable contact, but imaging can still be challenging in some patients at the gastro-oesophageal junction due to respiratory and cardiac motion.
Greenwich Medical Media Ltd (London, distributed by Oxford University Press) Chap. 15, pp 169–178 5. Bussau LJ, Vo LT, Delaney PM, Papworth GD, Barkla DH, King RG (1998) Fibre optic confocal imaging (FOCI) of keratinocytes, blood vessels and nerves in hairless mouse skin in vivo. J Anat 192:187–194 6. Vo LT, Papworth GD, Delaney PM, Barkla DH, King RG (1998) A study of vascular response on thermal injury on hairless mice by fibre optic confocal imaging, laser Doppler flowmetry and conventional histology.
Living cells can be observed; this leads to functional analysis and offers the unique possibility of seeing in vivo the architecture of the mucosal layer. Confocal images are displayed as grey scale images. Currently, two different contrast agents are used that allow fluorescence imaging. Intravenous fluorescein is distributed throughout the body and the mucosal layer of the gut can be observed over the whole range of the endomicroscope’s dynamic imaging plane ranging from the surface up to 250 µm deep.