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By Peter W. Hawkes (Eds.)

Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics merges long-running serials-Advances in Electronics and Electron Physics and Advances in Optical and Electron Microscopy. The sequence positive aspects prolonged articles at the physics of electron units (especially semiconductor devices), particle optics at low and high energies, microlithography, snapshot technology and electronic picture processing, electromagnetic wave propagation, electron microscopy, and the computing equipment utilized in these types of domain names.

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However, instead of adding the local histogram values serially, a successive approximation technique can be adopted (Gasteratos and Andreadis, 1999). This ensures that the result is traced in a fixed number of steps. The number of steps is equal to the number b of the bits per pixel. In the successive approximation technique the result is computed recursively; in each step of the process the N pixel values are compared to a temporal result. Pixel values, which are greater than, less than, or equal to that temporal result, are marked with labels GT, LT, and EQ, respectively.

These three differences or sums are the components of the jth vector (vectorj) in { f(x + y) − g(y)} or in { f(x − y) + g(y)}, respectively (see Eqs. (27) and (28)). Consequently, vectorj is loaded into the supremum or infimum finding module. The heart of this module is a mod-9 counter, which ensures that the nine vectors in { f(x + y) − g(y)} or in { f(x − y) + g(y)} will be compared during nine clock cycles and the infimum or the supremum of these nine vectors will be the output of the module at the tenth clock cycle.

Max ({k ♦ ( f (x − y) + λi (y))} ∪ { f (x − z) + μi (z)})] (x−y)∈B1 (x−z)∈B2 where N is the number of the elements of the multiset. However, if an element is not greater than the local (N − k)th-order statistic, then it cannot be greater than the global (N − k)th-order statistic. Therefore, the terms max(N), . . , max(k+1) can be omitted: f ⊕ [α, β, k](x) n = max(k) [ max(k) ({k ♦ ( f (x − y) + λi (y))} ∪ { f (x − z) + μi (z)}), i=1 (x−y)∈B1 (x−z)∈B2 max(k−1) ({k ♦ ( f (x − y) + λi (y))} ∪ { f (x − z) + μi (z)}), (x−y)∈B1 (x−z)∈B2 ..

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