By Stephen D. Cramer, Bernard S., Jr. Covino
This 700-page ASM guide is constituted of forty eight peer-reviewed articles on how metals and nonmetals are effected by way of numerous elements.The significant parts coated comprise ferrous and nonferrous metals: processed fabrics, and clad metals; distinctive items, together with amorphous fabrics, intermatllics, and steel matrix composites; and on metallics, together with ceramics, concrete, coatings, composites and elastomers. it is also an editorial at the international rate of corrosion and a full-color gallery of corrosion harm.
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Extra resources for ASM Handbook: Volume 13B: Corrosion: Materials
03 ... ... 06 ... ... ... 5 ... 14 ... ... 19 ... 47 ... 04 ... ... 65 ... ... 573 ... ... 75 ... ... ... ... 32 mil/yr. Source: Ref 13 22 / Corrosion of Ferrous Metals 6 150 Structural carbon steel 5 125 Structural copper steel 4 3 75 ASTM A517, grade F 50 Average penetration, mils Average penetration, µm 100 2 ASTM A242, type 1 (Cr, Si, and Ni added) 25 1 0 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Time, years Fig. 18 Comparative corrosion performance of constructional steels exposed to moderate marine atmosphere at Kure Beach, NC.
Microcracks that form at these interfaces grow in a stepwise fashion toward the surface of the pipe, with the result being failure (Fig. 13). Very few failures due to HIC have been reported. However, they can be catastrophic, and considerable investigative work has been done to understand the nature of the problem and to develop preventive measures. Hydrogeninduced cracking can usually be prevented by control of the environment—for example, dehydration to remove water and through chemical inhibition.
Consensus standards have been developed to estimate the atmospheric corrosion behavior of weathering steels (Ref 7). Two methods are recognized: Perform short-term exposure tests and extrapolate the thickness loss results to the service life of interest, using regression analysis to determine the empirical constants in the predictive equation given previously. Calculate a corrosion index based on the steel composition. Currently, two corrosion indexes are in use. One older index (Ref 10) was developed from the 270-steel database described in Ref 9, and the newer index (Ref 11) was established from a database of 275 steels exposed, starting in 1934, for times up to 16 years in industrial Bethlehem, PA; 227 steels exposed in more rural Columbus, OH; and 248 steels exposed in industrial Pittsburgh, PA.