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Additional resources for Applied Optimal Control: Optimization, Estimation and Control
Cls 54 September 28, 2006 15:54 CODE DIVISION MULTIPLE ACCESS (CDMA) Rake receiver can provide substantial improvement in performance even if the environment is not rich in multipath. 3 Impact of Bandwidth Increasing the bandwidth of a signal while keeping the data rate constant impacts the performance of the communications signals in three distinct ways. As discussed in the previous section, increasing bandwidth increases the number of resolvable multipath components. Each of these components contain a fraction of the overall energy and are independent, leading to the possibility of diversity.
Cls 26 September 28, 2006 15:54 CODE DIVISION MULTIPLE ACCESS (CDMA) It can be seen that the chip rate is N times that of the bit rate, resulting in a signal whose bandwidth is much larger than necessary for transmission of the information. Specifically, as we will show later, the bandwidth is commensurate with the chip rate or N times what a traditional BPSK signal bandwidth would be. At the receiver, the opposite operations are performed. 2 After down-conversion, the signal is despread and passed to a standard BPSK detector.
The number of hop frequencies N. Unlike in DS/SS, the bandwidth expansion is independent of the chip period Tc . In fact, as mentioned, the chip period can be greater than the symbol period. In other words, the hopping may be slower than the symbol rate. We will discuss the consequences of this relationship later. Although any modulation format can be used with FH/SS, coherent demodulation techniques require that the frequency hopping maintain frequency coherence each hop. This can be difficult to maintain, and thus non-coherent demodulation techniques are more commonly used with FH/SS.