By Y.T. Lo
Quantity 1: Antenna basics and Mathematical thoughts opens with a dialogue of the basics and mathematical strategies for any type of paintings with antennas, together with easy ideas, theorems, and formulation, and methods. DLC: Antennas (Electronics)
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Additional resources for Antenna Handbook - Applications
As the impedance bandwidth increases, however, surface wave losses also increase, which reduces radiation efficiency. To suppress the surface waves a low permittivity of the substrate is required. 3 Planer Inverted-L/F Antennas A planar inverted-L/F antenna is an improved version of the monopole antenna. The straight wire monopole is the antenna with the most basic form. Its dominant resonance appears at around one-quarter of the operating wavelength. 10. A PIFA can be considered a kind of linear inverted-F antenna (IFA), with the wire radiator element replaced by a plate to expand bandwidth.
Base stations typically support three cells spaced 120° apart in azimuth, although this plan is by no means universal especially where coverage may be limited by buildings or hills or where usage patterns are nonuniform, as in the case of a BS alongside a major highway. Code division multiple access (CDMA) systems require careful control of the overlap between cells to avoid excessive loss of capacity in soft/softer handoff modes, so a 3-dB beamwidth of 65° is the norm. Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) systems typically use antennas with 65° beamwidth in urban areas but often use wider beamwidths in rural areas.
Intermodulation is widely discussed for the design of power amplifiers. Similarly, for a base station transmitting antenna, which emits high power, the intermodulation exists due to the metal/metal joint and material nonlinearity. The intermodulation is a kind of interference that should be suppressed. Suppose two closely located fundamental frequencies, f1 and f2, are transmitted by the antenna; due to nonlinearity, the radiated field has components at the frequencies of f1, f2, 2f1, 2f2, 3f1, 3f2, f1 + f2, f1 − f2, 2f1 − f2, 2f2 − f1, and so on.