By Edward P. C.(Edward P.C. Kao) Kao
Meant for a calculus-based path in stochastic strategies on the graduate or complicated undergraduate point, this article deals a contemporary, utilized perspective.Instead of the traditional formal and mathematically rigorous strategy traditional for texts for this direction, Edward Kao emphasizes the improvement of operational talents and research via numerous well-chosen examples.
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Additional resources for An Introduction to Stochastic Processes
30 NUMBERS Telling the time SEE ALSO Introducing numbers 14–15 28–29 Units of measurement TIME IS MEASURED IN THE SAME WAY AROUND THE WORLD. THE MAIN UNITS ARE SECONDS, MINUTES, AND HOURS. Telling the time is an important skill and one that is used in many ways: What time is breakfast? How long until my birthday? Which is the quickest route? Measuring time Units of time measure how long events take and the gaps between the events. Sometimes it is important to measure time exactly, in a science experiment for example.
5 4 3 2 5 △ The cube of a number Multiplying a number by itself twice gives its cube. The power for a cube number is 3, for example 5³, which means there are 3 number 5’s being multiplied: 5 × 5 × 5. 5 rows with 5 units in each row 4 this is the power; 5³ is called “5 cubed” 3 5×5×5=5 = 125 2 △The square of a number Multiplying a number by itself gives the square of the number. The power for a square number is 2, for example 52 means that 2 number 5’s are being multiplied. 1 this is the power; 5² is called “5 squared” 4 72–73 1 5×5=5 = 25 Using a calculator 3 1 2 3 4 5 1 4 2 3 3 5 5 horizontal rows 2 4 ▷ Cubed number This image shows how many units make up 5³.
Denominator 7 12 denominator multiples of 12 multiples of 8 3, 6, 9, 12, 8, 16, 24, 32, 12, 24, 36, 40, 48, 56, 48, 60, 72, 15, 18, 21, 84, 96… 24, 27, 30… 64, 72… lowest common denominator of 3, 8, and 12 common denominators 24, 48, 72, 96… largest fraction smallest fraction 2 ×8 16 5 ×3 15 = = 3 ×8 24 8 ×3 24 original denominator goes into common denominator 8 times, so multiply both numerator and denominator by 8 original denominator goes into common denominator 3 times, so multiply both numerator and denominator by 3 7 ×2 14 = 12 ×2 24 original denominator goes into common denominator 2 times, so multiply both numerator and denominator by 2 FRACTIONS ADDING AND SUBTRACTING FRACTIONS Just like whole numbers, it is possible to add and subtract fractions.