Download A Phoenician-Punic Grammar (Handbuch Der Orientalistik) by Charles R. Krahmalkov PDF

By Charles R. Krahmalkov

This quantity contains the phonology, orthography, morphology, syntax, language and utilization of the Phoenician-Punic language. It includes examples from texts and dialects, together with fragments of a Punic drama, to carry to lifestyles the grammatical description of this language. the outline of the literary language holds that annoying and element reference of a given type of the verb is basically a functionality of syntax, no longer morphology.

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2c. Reflex of Canaanite l Canaanite i was preserved in Phoenician, appearing in Latin-letter orthography as i e y: Punic Poen. 940 a l o n i m "allonlm ("gods"); Poen. 944 ce kl ("because"); Poen. 940 is "is ("who") = Poen. 943, 949 es. Neo-Punic Poen. 935 d o b r i m dobrlm ("they say"); Poen. 1 y s "is ("man"), et passim. 2d. Reflex of Canaanite u Canaanite u was preserved: Punic Poen. 5 s e b u i m zebu(h)lm ("sacrificed ones"). 3. Secondary Vowels 3a. Anaptyctic e i a In certain nouns of the shape CVCC, the final consonant cluster may be opened by means of an unstressed anaptyctic vowel e i or, when the final root consonant is one of the series " hh c r, by the anaptyctic vowel a: Pu Poen.

Although the letters H H ' were used indifferently to express any vowel, the letter 'ayin is conspicuous for the frequency with which it was used to express the vowel a. No consistent use of vowel- letters ever emerged in Neo-Punic. In the final period of its existence, the first five centuries of the Common (Christian) Era, the traditional twenty-two letter Phoenician-Punic alphabet fell into desuetude and was replaced by the Roman alphabet. For the Punic of this period a fully developed Latinletter orthography was devised.

6 myith mi it < mit (M'T"one hundred"). Note that in Punic the anaptyctic vowel may be preserved even when suffix pronouns are affixed: Pu Poen. 938 s i b i t h i m sibitim ("his residing"). Anaptyxis normally does not take place when the final root letter is the sonorant I or r. Diosc. 14 ers 'ers ('RS "land"); Poen. IfRS "shard"); CRAI1937 m o l c h molk (AHJT "molksacrifice"). 3b. Furtive a As in Hebrew, a so-called "furtive" a-vowel is heard in a closed syllable with long vowel in which the closing consonant is a laryngeal or pharyngeal: LA 1 p.

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