By Abdulrahman Yarali
From the transition of analog to electronic verbal exchange in addition to seamless mobility and excessive computing energy of small hand-held units, the instant communications has obvious large alterations resulting in the mixing of a number of telecommunication networks, units and providers over final 30 years. the speed of this development and progress has elevated really some time past decade simply because humans now not use their units and networks for voice in basic terms, yet call for package deal contents corresponding to information download/streaming, HDTV, HD video , 3D video conferencing with larger potency, seamless connectivity, intelligence, reliability and higher consumer event. even though the demanding situations dealing with provider prone and telecommunication businesses range by means of product, quarter, marketplace measurement, and their parts of focus yet time to industry, effective usage in their resources and profit enlargement, have impacted considerably find out how to deal with and behavior their enterprise whereas retaining adequate margin.
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Additional info for 4G & Beyond. The Convergence of Networks, Devices, and Services
For 2G offloading, network selection is done by a client application, and the IP traffic is routed through the wireline and direct connection to internet, coupled with common authentication architecture. Offloading network selection for 3G with small cell is done by the wireless core, and the mobile equipment opens a tunnel from the device to the dedicated Interworking WiFi server in the operator’s core network to establish an access for the user to the operator’s wireless macro services or to a gateway to the Internet, coupled with a common authentication procedure.
11 standard was approved in 2012. 11aa/ac/ad). 11ax) for further increasing the efficiency of WLANs. Queue 1 Queue 2 Queue 3 Queue 4 Backoff AIFS[AC1) CW[AC1] Backoff AIFS[AC2] CW |AC2l Backoff AIFS(AC3] CW[AC3) Backoff AIFS[AC4) CW[AC4) 'r 'г Уr >r Scheduler (resolves virtual collisions) I Transmission Figure 2. 11e EDCF channel access. I Future Trends and Challenges for Mobile and Convergent Networks 45 Table 5. 1, published in February 2014, that through cognitive radio technology allows WLAN operation in TV white space spectrum in the VHF and UHF bands between 54 and 790 MHz Upcoming amendment (expected in 2016) to define WLANs operating at sub 1 GHz license-exempt bands.
160 2160 80 M Hz. 4 spatial streams: 1733 160 M Hz. 4 spatial streams: 3466 160 MHz. 8 spatial streams: 6933 Single Carrier: 4620 OFDM: 6756 The Road Towards Densified and HetNet Gigabit Wireless Networks 27 5. C e l l u l a r N e t w o r k O f f l o a d i n g Traffic demand and data intensive application are expected to exceed the capacity of higher generation networks in the near future leaving operators with flat average revenue per user and under pressure to offer faster data speeds to keep up with their customers’ uncontrollable demand.